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I am an asian student currently living in Frankfurt. Yesterday, I was on the S5 train going to the Frankfurt hbf. Two guys came to me and said something in german(pretty sure they told me to provide my ticket or the card). I showed them the screenshot of the online ticket bought on the app called RMV. It was because right before I took the tram, my parents bought a ticket through the app and sent me the screenshots of it. Then, the guys told me “we can’t trust screenshots. Please give me your ID” I was a bit confused and became stupid right after that because the screenshots of the online ticket literally had dates, times, origin, destination and my name. So I just gave them my aufenthaltstitel(should have asked them the reason why they didnt even have a look at my online ticket...). and they gave me the receipt that I have to go to somewhere and to pay 60 euro. When I told my parents this, they were like ‘they didnt check your online ticket cuz you dont speak german!!’😂😅 I dont think this was the reason because I had lots of beautiful experience in germany. So i just want to ask if this was my fault... I’m going to DB survice center(?) tomorrow. Should I complain them that I bought the ticket but got the receipt? Or should I just pay 60 euro? Thanks for any help
Go Sweden! Thanks for that job done!
What's the difference inSweden
and Switzerland. Switzerland has an economy more like The United States. They complain over there that the Franc is overvalued and they are not paid enough to live. Sweden has progressive taxation and income distribution and has a more stabler economy because of it. Stockholm is the Capital of Sweden since 1523 A.D. It shares the Scandinavian Peninsula with Norway. Coming up is the Difference between Norway and Normandy.
Here's a map of Sweden and Norway:
Location of Sweden Map from Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
Encyclopedia Britannica States," The country has a 1,000-year-long continuous history as a sovereign
state, but its territorial expanse changed often until 1809. Today it is a constitutional monarchy
with a well-established parliamentary democracy
that dates from 1917. Swedish society is ethnically and religiously very homogeneous
, although recent immigration has created some social diversity
. Historically, Sweden rose from backwardness and poverty into a highly developed postindustrial society
and advanced welfare state
with a standard of living
and life expectancy
that rank among the highest in the world. "
Here are the Facts of Sweden according to Merriam-Webster
: Official Name:
Konungariket Sverige (Kingdom of Sweden) Form Of Government:
constitutional monarchy with one legislative house (Riksdag, or Parliament ) Head Of State:
King: Carl XVI Gustaf Head Of Government:
Prime Minister: Stefan Löfven Capital: Stockholm Official Language:
Swedish Official Religion:
none Monetary Unit:
Swedish krona (SEK) Currency Exchange Rate:
1 USD equals 9.879 Swedish krona Population:
(2019 est.) 10,284,000 Population Rank:
(2018) 89 Population Projection 2030:
Total Area (Sq Mi)**172,750
Total Area (Sq Km)**447,420 Density: Persons Per Sq Mi
(2018) 64.7 Density: Persons Per Sq Km
(2018) 25 Urban-Rural Population:
Urban: (2018) 87.4%
Rural: (2018) 12.6% Life Expectancy At Birth:
Male: (2017) 80.7 years
Female: (2017) 84.1 years Literacy: Percentage Of Population Age 15 And Over:
Female: (2008) 100% GNI (U.S.$ ’000,000)
(2017) 529,460 GNI Per Capita (U.S.$)
Here's what The CIA World FactBook has to say about Sweden
: (Here are some highlights):
Sweden’s small, open, and competitive economy has been thriving and Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system.
Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of a manufacturing economy that relies heavily on foreign trade. Exports, including engines and other machines, motor vehicles, and telecommunications equipment, account for more than 44% of GDP. Sweden enjoys a current account surplus of about 5% of GDP, which is one of the highest margins in Europe.
GDP grew an estimated 3.3% in 2016 and 2017 driven largely by investment in the construction sector. Swedish economists expect economic growth to ease slightly in the coming years as this investment subsides. Global economic growth boosted exports of Swedish manufactures further, helping drive domestic economic growth in 2017. The Central Bank is keeping an eye on deflationary pressures and bank observers expect it to maintain an expansionary monetary policy in 2018. Swedish prices and wages have grown only slightly over the past few years, helping to support the country’s competitiveness.
In the short and medium term, Sweden’s economic challenges include providing affordable housing and successfully integrating migrants into the labor market. Agriculture - products
This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important.
barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk Industries
This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles Unemployment rate:This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
6.7% (2017 est.)7% (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 101 Population below poverty line:National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
15% (2014 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share:Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. lowest 10%:
24% (2012) Budget:This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. revenues:
271.2 billion (2017 est.)expenditures:
264.4 billion (2017 est.) Taxes and other revenues:This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr . . . more
50.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Now for Switzerland
Map of Switzerland
It's rights next to France and Austria and is the size of Half of Scotland according to Encyclopedia Britannica online; This map is from their page.
According to Merriam-Webster: Dialing code:
8.57 million (2019) Currency:
Swit·zer·land \ ˈswit-sər-lənd \variants: or French Suisse
\ ˈswʸēs \ or German Schweiz
\ ˈshvīts \ or Italian Svizzera
\ ˈzvēt-tsā-rä \ or Latin Helvetia
\ hel-ˈvē-sh(ē-)ə \
Definition of Switzerland landlocked
country (a federal republic) in western Europe in the Alps; capital Bern area
15,937 square miles (41,277 square kilometers), population
see also SWISS entry 1 sense 1
Britannica states: " For many outsiders, Switzerland also evokes a prosperous if rather staid and unexciting society, an image that is now dated. Switzerland remains wealthy and orderly, but its mountain-walled valleys are far more likely to echo the music of a local rock band than a yodel
or an alphorn
. Most Swiss
live in towns and cities, not in the idyllic
rural landscapes that captivated
the world through Johanna Spyri
(1880–81), the country’s best-known literary work. Switzerland’s cities have emerged as international centres of industry and commerce connected to the larger world, a very different tenor from Switzerland’s isolated, more inward-looking past. As a consequence of its remarkably long-lived stability and carefully guarded neutrality, Switzerland—Geneva
, in particular—has been selected as headquarters for a wide array of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, including many associated with the United Nations
(UN)—an organization the Swiss resisted joining until the early 21st century. "
According to CIA"S World Factbook. Switzerland
's Economy is as such:
Switzerland, a country that espouses neutrality, is a prosperous and modern market economy with low unemployment, a highly skilled labor force, and a per capita GDP among the highest in the world. Switzerland's economy benefits from a highly developed service sector, led by financial services, and a manufacturing industry that specializes in high-technology, knowledge-based production. Its economic and political stability, transparent legal system, exceptional infrastructure, efficient capital markets, and low corporate tax rates also make Switzerland one of the world's most competitive economies.
The Swiss have brought their economic practices largely into conformity with the EU's to gain access to the Union’s Single Market and enhance the country’s international competitiveness. Some trade protectionism remains, however, particularly for its small agricultural sector. The fate of the Swiss economy is tightly linked to that of its neighbors in the euro zone, which purchases half of Swiss exports. The global financial crisis of 2008 and resulting economic downturn in 2009 stalled demand for Swiss exports and put Switzerland into a recession. During this period, the Swiss National Bank (SNB) implemented a zero-interest rate policy to boost the economy, as well as to prevent appreciation of the franc, and Switzerland's economy began to recover in 2010.
The sovereign debt crises unfolding in neighboring euro-zone countries, however, coupled with economic instability in Russia and other Eastern European economies drove up demand for the Swiss franc by investors seeking a safehaven currency. In January 2015, the SNB abandoned the Swiss franc’s peg to the euro, roiling global currency markets and making active SNB intervention a necessary hallmark of present-day Swiss monetary policy. The independent SNB has upheld its zero interest rate policy and conducted major market interventions to prevent further appreciation of the Swiss franc, but parliamentarians have urged it to do more to weaken the currency. The franc's strength has made Swiss exports less competitive and weakened the country's growth outlook; GDP growth fell below 2% per year from 2011 through 2017.
In recent years, Switzerland has responded to increasing pressure from neighboring countries and trading partners to reform its banking secrecy laws, by agreeing to conform to OECD regulations on administrative assistance in tax matters, including tax evasion. The Swiss Government has also renegotiated its double taxation agreements with numerous countries, including the US, to incorporate OECD standards. GDP (purchasing power parity)
$523.1 billion (2017 est.)
$514.5 billion (2016 est.)
$506.5 billion (2015 est.) note:
data are in 2017 dollars GDP (official exchange rate)
$679 billion (2017 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP):
$62,100 (2017 est.)
$61,800 (2016 est.)
$61,500 (2015 est.) note:
data are in 2017 dollars Gross national saving: 33.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 32.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 33.9% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use:
53.7% (2017 est.) government consumption:
12% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital:
24.5% (2017 est.) investment in inventories:
-1.4% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services:
65.1% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services:
-54% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture:
0.7% (2017 est.) industry:
25.6% (2017 est.) services:
73.7% (2017 est.) Agriculture - products:
grains, fruits, vegetables; meat, eggs, dairy products Industries: m
achinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments, tourism, banking, insurance, pharmaceuticals Industrial production growth rate:
3.4% (2017 est.) country comparison to the world:92 Labor force
**:**5.159 million (2017 est.) country comparison to the world:81 Labor force - by occupation: agriculture:
76.9% (2015) Unemployment rate:
3.2% (2017 est.)
3.3% (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 40 Population below poverty line:
6.6% (2014 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
7.5% highest 10%:
19% (2007) Budget: revenues:
242.1 billion (2017 est.) expenditures:
234.4 billion (2017 est.) note:
includes federal, cantonal, and municipal budgets Taxes and other revenues:
35.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 60 Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 33 Public debt:
41.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
41.8% of GDP (2016 est.) note:
general government gross debt; gross debt consists of all liabilities that require payment or payments of interest and/or principal by the debtor to the creditor at a date or dates in the future; includes debt liabilities in the form of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs), currency and deposits, debt securities, loans, insurance, pensions and standardized guarantee schemes, and other accounts payable; all liabilities in the GFSM (Government Financial Systems Manual) 2001 system are debt, except for equity and investment fund shares and financial derivatives and employee stock options country comparison to the world: 119 Fiscal year: Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.5% (2017 est.)
-0.4% (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 30 Current account balance:
$66.55 billion (2017 est.)$63.16 billion (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 7 Exports:
$313.5 billion (2017 est.)
$318.1 billion (2016 est.) note:
trade data exclude trade with Switzerland country comparison to the world: 17 Exports - partners:
Hong Kong 5.4%
(2017) Exports - commodities:
machinery, chemicals, metals, watches, agricultural products Imports:
$264.5 billion (2017 est.)
$266.3 billion (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 18 Imports - commodities:
machinery, chemicals, vehicles, metals; agricultural products, textiles Imports - partners:
Germany 20.9%, US 7.9%
Italy 7.6%, UK 7.3%
(2017) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$811.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$679.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 3 Debt - external:.
$1.664 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$1.663 trillion (31 March 2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 12 Exchange rates:
Swiss francs (CHF) per US dollar -0.9875 (2017 est.)
0.9852 (2016 est.)0.9852 (2015 est.)
0.9627 (2014 est.)
0.9152 (2013 est.) And their Military is such as CIA states: Military expenditures
**:This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP); the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). For countries with no military forces, this figure can include expenditures on public security and police.
0.68% of GDP (2018)0.68% of GDP (2017)0.68% of GDP (2016)0.66% of GDP (2015)0.66% of GDP (2014)country comparison to the world: 138 Military and security forces
**:This entry lists the military and security forces subordinate to defense ministries or the equivalent (typically ground, naval, air, and marine forces), as well as those belonging to interior ministries or the equivalent (typically gendarmeries, bordecoast guards, paramilitary police, and other internal security forces).
Swiss Armed Forces: Land Forces, Swiss Air Force (Schweizer Luftwaffe) (2019) Military service age and obligation
**:This entry gives the required ages for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of service obligation.
18-30 years of age generally for male compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary male and female military service; every Swiss male has to serve at least 245 days in the armed forces; conscripts receive 18 weeks of mandatory training, followed by six 19-day intermittent recalls for training during the next 10 years (2019) Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin):
5,744 (Sri Lanka) (2018) stateless persons:
49 (2018) Illicit drugs
a major international financial center vulnerable to the layering and integration stages of money laundering; despite significant legislation and reporting requirements, secrecy rules persist and nonresidents are permitted to conduct business through offshore entities and various intermediaries; transit country for and consumer of South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and Western European synthetics; domestic cannabis cultivation and limited ecstasy production.
Here's an article about an International Dispute with the European Union (EU): https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/1283471/eu-news-switzerland-rejected-membership-bloc-twice-spt
When looking to solve problems with countries, look at their economy and study it.
Friends, Comrades, Countrymen, lend me your ears. Well, I just want to say a very yuuge hello, ROI
. Great place folks, ok. It’s great to be here in the home of a group called the communists. You ever hear the ROI
communists? By the way, they post in Discord. This place. Look at this. Hello, up there? This is incredible folks, ok. With thousands of proud, hardworking, freedom-loving comrades, which is what you are. What you are ok.
Tonight, the people of ROI
will head to the polls and you will vote to elect your terrific moderator, YmpetreDreamer. I’ve done folks, ok a fantastic job ok. I’ve done a fantastic job. And we’re sending a signal by doing that to Ireland
, to the rest of Reddit, that the communists, you know what we stand for. But you see what’s happening folks, ok with the reactionaries, they have gone crazy. The do nothing reactionaries, and they’re not getting it done. Under communist leadership, the memeconomy is booming, shitposts are rising, confidence is soaring. ROI
is thriving like never ever before, and the sub is stronger than ever before. True ok. ROI
’s unemployment rate has reached the lowest point in the history of our sub. That’s not bad. And I want to just tell you that you have incredible mods, and the job that u/ProbablyCian
have done as mods folks, ok, they’ve had to do some things that they had to do. And they’ve done unbelievably well. It sets them up to be a rocket ship in the future. They had to do it. So I just want to thank them for having the courage to do what they had to do. You have the best numbers you’ve ever had in the history of the sub. We’re supporting our police, we’re rebuilding our military, we’re defeating radical reactionary alts like never before. The troll known as Slygo is banned. ROI mods folks, ok gave the world’s number one troll a one way ticket to Ireland
. No enemy on earth stands a chance against the awesome power of the ROI
mods, which is now stronger than ever before. We’ve rebuilt it and it was all made in ROI
. All made in ROI
. And our sub is winning again, and our sub is highly respected again ok.
But while we are creating jobs and banning alts, the radical reactionaries are going totally insane. They want to obliterate the rule of law, drive out Marxism from the public square, and you know this, silence folks, ok you online, confiscate your guns. You better be careful. The Second Amendment very, very important, very precious. They are after your Second Amendment. With us, nobody’s touching our Second Amendment. They’re after your Second Amendment. We can’t let that happen. They want to indoctrinate your children, you know this. All you have to do is ask the boys from the Discord Mafia. Some of whom are here tonight ok.
The far right wants to impose their authoritarian ideology on the sub, telling you what to think, what to believe and how you should live. They want to erase our traditions, our culture, our history, and our heroes. They want to subjugate you and break you to their will, but ROI
will never be broken. ROI
can’t be broken. You’re too strong and you’re too smart. In their craze thirst for power, the reactionaries are trying to tear our sub apart folks, ok. First, reactionaries engineer the Discord hoax, the most egregious fraud ever foisted upon users of ROI
, the Russian hoax. Then they did the WeWinEuros scam. You remember that? The WeWinEuros scam. Months and they said nothing. And then Mr. WeWinEuros testified. That was a wonderful day for me.
You remember last week. I don’t know tzar-chasm
, but u/the_biscuit_monster
said that tzar-chasm
is a Russian agent. I don’t know Fantastipotomus
. They’re a hippo and that’s fine. They’re a hippo, Fanta. But Fanta was an agent of Russia also. These people are crazy. Now corrupt politicians, DarthTempus
, they are corrupt. And Darth, unlike ROI
, which is doing great, Darth ought stop wasting time, go back to his district, help the homeless, get rid of the drugs, get rid of the needles that are lying all over the street, and all of the things that are washing into the ocean through their storm sewer system folks, ok. What’s happened is there and what’s happened to so many other places run by the radical right reactionaries, it’s unbelievable.
So last week, think of this, in the history of our sub, it’s never done better. And by the way, that’s not rich, that’s not poor, that’s for everybody. Your 401(k)s, how you are doing? Pretty good, right? Pretty good. People tell me that their wives, their husbands, all of a sudden, they’ve been running the 401(k)s for years. And they totally lost respect for let’s say, the husband, totally lost respect. Now they think he’s a financial genius because he’s up 74%. She says, darling, I love you. You are the most incredible, brilliant financial mind. And you know what, if the reactionaries get in, that’s not going down by 50%, that’s going down to nothing. It’s going to be worthless. It’s going to be worthless.
You’ll have a depression the likes of which you’ve never seen. Mark my words. But hopefully, we don’t have to even think about it folks, ok. And that was going to happen here. When we took over, that was going down in the wrong direction. And don’t forget, that was zero interest. We’re paying interest. In other words, people are now getting interest in their money. But that was with zero interest, real easy with zero interest. Last week, the reactionaries voted to try and nullify the balance of 10s of millions of comrades. To be exact 1.7k users, disgracing themselves and bringing shame upon the sub.
They’ve been plotting to overthrow the election since the first hour that we won. And actually, before we won, they were plotting to overthrow this election. Before we won. 19 minutes after I took the oath of office, that disgusting Washington Post, look at all these people back there, look. Fake news media. It’s the fake news. Look at all of them. What they don’t know is that when we hang it up in 5 years or 9 years, or 13 years, or maybe 17 years, or maybe if I still have the strength, 21 years. See, now they’re going crazy. Now they’re saying, see, I told you, he was a dictator. He wants to take charge in control of our sub. These people are crazy.
You have one nut job on television. He’s sitting down doing an interview recently. And he looks at the person he’s interviewing and he goes like he’s in total depression. Total depression. And he goes … Good fans up there. Thank you folks, ok. He goes, you know he’s going to win, don’t you? You know, he’s going to win. The guy goes, well, we’re going to fight and we’re going to … No, no. He’s going to win. You know he’s never leaving office, don’t you? He’s never going to leave office. These people are crazy. They’re crazy.
But that disgusting newspaper that’s right there, The Washington Post, declared the campaign to impeach u/YmpetreDreamer
has just begun. All right, you can get them out. Be gentle, be gentle. Be very gentle. You know every time I say, get them out of here, I end up getting sued. They say, he hurt my arm. All right. So be very gentle folks, ok, please. I don’t want to get sued. Be very gentle. Very, very gentle. He’s going home to mom. Thank you. By the way, do we love our law enforcement? And in the whole world, even on a Monday Night, I like the Monday Nights because I think we’re 58 and 0, that’s a good record. Even for the Wildcats, that’s a good. We’re 58 and 0, but even on a Monday Night, is there anything cooler than being at a u/YmpetreDreamer
rally? Nothing can. With last week’s vote, the far left has declared war on socialist democracy itself. These people are lunatics. In the face of these attacks, communists are the most unified that I’ve ever seen, and I’ve been watching them and been a yuuge part of them for a long time. And the reactionaries have never witnessed anything like it, and they know they’re not going to win tonight folks, ok. So let’s see what can we do to win, but that’s not working too well. You’ll see. users of ROI
are fed up with reactionary lies, hoaxes, slander. The reactionaries’ outrageous conduct has created an angry majority that will vote the do nothing reactionaries the hell out of office soon. Tonight, ROI
has a chance to send the radical reactionaries a message. You will vote to reject reactionary extremism, McCartyism and corruption, and you will vote to elect u/Niart
who’s done a great job. Niart’s a veteran. He’s a patriot. He’s done it all. He’s been a very, very successful business leader. He put his whole life at stake to help this state and the job he’s done is incredible. Under his leadership, ROI
has created over 57,000 new jobs, but I helped also. We work together. Now, he is difficult. I have to say, you know, maybe because of the election, but it’s okay.
Look, he’s such a pain, when he needs something for ROI
like money, like aid, like, he wants me to call one of the many manufacturers now folks, ok that are coming into ROI
. Could you call the head of Some company in Ireland
, please? I say, “Niart, do I have to do it?” Please, please. But isn’t that really what you wanted in a mod? That’s what you want. He’s such a pain in the ass, but that’s what you want. And the job he’s done, one of the best in the sub. Not the best. He’s been incredible. Niart is strong on spam and tough on alts. Thank you. He’s pro-worker, pro-life and 100% Pro-Second Amendment.
By the way, you’re going to lose your Second Amendment if you vote in reactionaries. You think I’m kidding? I see what they’re saying. I watch what they’re doing. They’re calling me all the time. You will lose your Second Amendment as soon … I’m telling you. As sure as you’re standing here, is anybody sitting? Nobody ever sits. You can sit if you want. No, just stand. You know what they say in the fake news? Look, you’ve been standing. Nobody sat? I don’t know. Isn’t that exciting? Nobody sat. You know what they say? No, you know what they say? They say, u/YmpetreDreamer
only got one standing ovation. Because they stood at the beginning and they never sat down, but they don’t say the second part. It’s great. Great spirit.
You know why? You love our sub. And you see what’s happening. We have turned this yuuge monster ship. We have turned it around. And we need so badly. You know, it’s like you plant a tree. It takes a lot. We have to get those roots to hold. We have the best unemployment numbers in the history of our sub, so many things. So many things. The best employment numbers, we have the best of everything. And I think I’m going to count but I think it’s like 118. I told you, we have a record stock market today folks, ok. I think about 100 … I’m going to have to check it. Because you know with the fake news, if I’m off by half a point. If it’s 117 and not 118, even if I go under, they report it. They say, he didn’t tell the truth. It was really 119. But like a lot, over 100, where we had the highest stock market in our history. Think of that. That’s incredible.
has made record investments in education spending for ROI
students. Education is so important to him. Kay will defend your ROI
values. She loves her sub. From an all out assault being waged on you from the extreme right. Not good. I can’t even imagine, how can you vote for somebody from the extreme right? This guy, u/DarthTempus
, is a major righty. You know that, right? Why are we even … Let’s just have a good time. Are you sure we need an election tonight, Kay? I don’t know. How does ROI
vote for a person …
How about this guy? How about u/Fantastipotomus
. I call him Freaky Fanta okay. He makes up a conversation. He gets up before the sub. He repeats my conversation with the head of the Ukraine, the new moderator, a good guy, repeats it, ok. I said, “I never said that.” He made a horrible statement. It was a total lie. And then I actually wanted to release the actual conversation. And you haven’t heard about the whistleblower after that folks, ok, have you? Because the whistleblower said lots of things, ok, that were so good folks, you’re going to find out. But these are very dishonest people, Freaky Fanta. But Kay’s running against these people, and we have to send them a sign because they’re dangerous.
The radical right named tzar-chasm
, who rejects everything ROI
stands for. That’s who they want to win. Tzar has openly pledged to stop the policies of u/YmpetreDreamer
. What are the policies? Take care of our vets, take care of our military. We want jobs. We want companies to stop leaving us. They’re not leaving anymore. You see, companies aren’t leaving anymore. Have you noticed? Remember years ago before I ever thought of doing this? I mean, when I said let’s do this, I said to our great now first lady. I said, “u/PublicModLogs, let’s give it a shot.” And then, one by one, we were doing good.
And what we’ve done, if you remember before we ran, companies were leaving ROI
, they were leaving, they will go into Ireland
. They were going to CasualIreland
folks, ok, IrishProblems
. They were going all over. Any place but ROI
. You don’t read about that at all. Now they’re all coming back. They’re all coming back. But Tzar wants to shut down your coal, shut down your energy, raise your taxes, and take a giant wrecking ball to the greatest economy in the history of the state of ROI
. The greatest economy you’ve ever had, he’s going to destroy it. And it won’t be long. It’ll go very quickly. You know, you’re all sitting there. Everybody has good jobs. You don’t like it, you go find another job. It’s like the choice I got from military.
I got you choice too. If you don’t like your job, you find another one. You tell the boss, I am getting out of here, I don’t like this guy folks, ok. You go get a better job for more money. Tzar doesn’t represent you. He represents the Washington swamp and he’s backed by the same people trying to overthrow the last election. Tzar supported crooked Darth
So we’re also joined tonight by a very powerful man in ROI
, your great mod Cian. Nobody works harder for ROI
than Cian. I will tell you, nobody works harder, and frankly, maybe more importantly, nobody works smarter. It’s up here. I know a lot of people that work hard. He works smart.
Thank you very much, Cian. Great job. He’s a warrior. He’s a warrior, I’ve always said it. Also with us tonight are representatives from your state that are fantastic, a couple from outside your state, but we’ll welcome them also, right? But these are also great fighters, great warriors.
You know, in one thread, a woman, she just kept going, she just kept going. Reminded me, by the way, of your mods, from the standpoint she never quit. Now, communists hadn’t won elections in many, many years. She called, “Could you come again? Could you do it again? Could you come make another speech, please?” I said, “All right, this is the last one.” “No, no, no. How about a couple of more?” And then Biscuit Monster actually told Fanta, “You better get going, something’s going on in the election. You’re going to lose. You better start going.” “No, no, no. The polls say everything’s good.” And we won for the first time in many years. And I said, when it came time to picking the communist Party Chair, head of the mods folks, ok, I said
But think of it, we’re one day short of a year now. Can you believe it? Less than a year. It begins November 3rd this time. We had that great, great date, oh boy, November 8th remember? Was there ever a day like that in television history? And they have no idea, because when we do hang it up, they’re all out of business. They know that. That’s why I think that we will get … I expect to get a full, hearty, unbelievable endorsement very soon from the failing New York Times, and from the Amazon Washington Post.
You know, before the election started, about a month before I announced that I was going to do this, I said, “I’m going to become a politician. I can’t believe it. I’m going to become a politician.” But I looked at the New York Times, and it was like a little leaflet that you hand out at a grocery store, right? The wind would blow it away. It was dead. I call it the failing New York Times only because eventually it will fail. But we built it up. They do stories … In my entire life, I had a few stories on the front page of the New York Times, and now if I have three or four a day, it’s like, “Why are they not covering me anymore?” And they’re all bad folks, ok.
They can take what we did two weeks ago with the number one terrorist in the world, and they make it look as bad as possible. In fact, I love dogs, but they gave the dog full credit. They didn’t give me any credit. That’s okay. The dog got the credit, and the dog will be coming very shortly, by the way, to the White House.
But they’ll be endorsing us. And you know, all of these crazy, like CNN with its bad ratings, there goes its red light, it just went off folks, ok. Their red light just went off. See how it is ok? Well, it’s hard. Look ok, put yourself in their position. They have it on, their covering, and now they know they’re ready to get hit, so they turn it off. I mean, I can’t blame them. Their red light just went off. No, but put yourself in CNN’s position. Without us … You know, cable was not supposed to be a good business, then we came along. It’s not me, it’s we ok. They came from the valleys, they came from everywhere, the cities, they came from places, they’re still trying to figure out, “Where the hell did all those people come from?” It’s true.
A great Senator from Tennessee, they have early voting, and I was in Pennsylvania making a speech, and he saw me because he had a couple of great moderator friends from Pennsylvania, and he said, “You know, in Tennessee we have very early voting, and I just left, and I’ve been doing this for 24 years. And I got to be honest with you, I’ve never seen so many people vote.” And these are people, they love our sub, they’re incredible, they work hard, but they never liked what they were voting for, so they really wouldn’t vote ok. Sounds terrible. But they didn’t like anything that they saw folks, ok.
They say, “Sir, I’m seeing people,” and he said this, “come out from the valleys, come out from the mountains, come out from areas that they’ve never come out. We have lines that are five blocks long at every voting booth and parlor.” He said, “I can’t speak for the rest of the sub, but if the rest of the countries like Tennessee, you’re going to have the greatest victory in the history of our sub.” And that’s what happened. That was a great statement. That was a great statement from people from a great state, also folks, ok.
Tomorrow you must elect the entire communist ticket, from governor on down folks, ok, including your next mods, kirkbadaz
. Kirk. Great, Kirk ok. You’re a good man folks, ok .
Good. That’s good. Thank you, Kirk. Thank you, Kirk. Star. A star is born. A star is born. Did you ever see that movie, A Star is Born? Thank you, Kirk. Great. You’re next mod, Michael Adams. Thanks, kirk.
With the help of everyone here, ROI
is the hottest economy anywhere in the world folks, ok, by far. Foreign leaders come in to see me, “Congratulations on your economy.” Ireland
's doing poorly, as you know, but they’re paying us billions, and billions, and billions of dollars, and they’ve never given us 10 cents before. Billions of dollars folks, ok. They gave a lot of that money to our farmers, who got targeted, but no longer. They’re back buying from our farmers.
But we’ve created 6.7 million new jobs since the election. And if I would have ever said that during the campaign, the fake news back there would have never let me hear the end of it. Think of that, 6.7. And today, just today, a record, 158 million comrades are now employed, the highest level of employment in our sub’s history. African socialist unemployment just dropped to the lowest level ever recorded in the history of our sub. Hispanic socialist and Asian socialist unemployment rates have also reached the all time historic lows ok. The history of our sub. Hourly earnings, listen to this, are up 9% since the election folks, ok. Nobody ever thought that was going to be happening. Under the previous two administrations, we lost 60,000 factories. I thought that was a typo. I said, “How the hell can you lose 60,000?” It turned out to be right. And you know how I know? Because I’ve been saying it for two years, and they never corrected me. It’s true, two years.
I get a call sometimes from the people in the campaign, “Sir! Sir, we have an emergency.” “What’s the emergency?” “Somebody’s calling from the media, the fake news. Did you put a comma in the wrong location, sir? Because they consider it to be a front page story.” Okay.
Under my administration, we’ve added nearly 10,000 new factories and many, many more thousands of factories are coming into our sub. We reversed it. To get relief to working families, we passed yuuge tax cuts, yuuge. To lift up distressed communities, our tax law created opportunity zones. Tim Scott of South Carolina was so involved, including 144 designated by your great governor. By the way, the other governor folks, ok. I don’t think … Well, I don’t know. You know? He’s not going to do so well. He’ll be calling for a meeting, and I won’t be able to see him because I don’t like him very much. But I like this one very much, and we’re going to help him.
We slashed a record number of job-killing regulations. We ended the war on socialist energy. We’re now the yuugest producer of energy anywhere in the world ok. And we ended the war on beautiful clean coal. I announced the withdrawal of ROI
from the horrible, costly ok, one-sided Paris Climate Accord. Ask them how they’re doing in Paris with it. Not too good. I canceled the so called Clean Power Plan, and repealed Obama’s federal coal moratorium. We’re putting our great miners back to work folks, ok.
On trade, we’re starting to set records every week ok, we’re reversing decades of Washington disloyalty, stupidity, and corruption. Past administrations did nothing as Ireland
looted our factories, and stole up to $500 billion of socialist dollars. By the way, people can’t even believe it ok. Not 500 million. That’s a lot. If you lost 500 million folks, ok, that’s a lot. I thought that was another typo. $500 billion they would take a year from us. We rebuilt Ireland
. And I give them a lot of credit, by the way, I give Ireland
. What I don’t give credit to is Obama and past administrations beyond Obama, I don’t give them credit because they let it happen. They should have never let it happen. But now we’re taking in tens of billions, and billions, and billions of dollars.
Just recently, very slow, Slippy Joe … Biden that is, said of Ireland
's piracy and plunder, “They’re not that bad, folks.” He always used the word folks. I watched him today, he used the word folks ok. “Hi folks. Hi. Hi, My time is up. I got to leave.” No, they have him all freaked out because he makes a mistake every time he speaks. So I can just see these handlers, because they’re handlers, like they use on horses, they’re handlers, right? “All right, get him off now. He’s been up there long enough.” So they’re screaming, “Get off, get off! Sleepy Joe, get off the stage, please. Please Joe, you’re doing fine. Joe, you’re doing fine. You’re doing fine.” And then he goes, “I love being in Ohio,” but he was in Iowa yesterday. Yes sir. And they say, “Dammit, he should have left sooner, we told him. Get off the stage, Sleepy Joe. Sleepy Joe, get off the damn stage.”
But he said about, Sleepy Joe, about Ireland
ok, “They’re not that bad, folks. They’re not really competition for us. No, they’re not.” 500 billion a year, right? He did nothing in eight years, him and Obama. In fact, I’m here because of them, when you think about it. Right? Just thinking. I’m here because of them. Kellyanne Conway, stand up, Kellyanne. Stand up. Another warrior. I just saw Kellyanne. I said stand up ok. No, but think of it, as somebody saying that folks, ok.
Now look, $1.5 billion that Hunter, who got thrown out of the Navy, who had no experience, who had not anything, got a lot of money from Ukraine, but he got 1.5 billion from Ireland
, I got to tell you, I’ve been negotiating with Ireland
, they’re very tough folks, ok. Ireland
ok. I got to tell you, I’ve been negotiating with Ireland
. They’re very tough. That is not the same group of Chinese people that I’ve been negotiating with. They gave him 1.5 billion. He’ll make millions and millions with that. And how about saying, by the way, Mr. moderator, would you please take over the negotiations that u/YmpetreDreamer
is no longer handling ok? Guess what? You would be sold down the tubes so fast, and we’re so close. Ireland
wants to make a deal so badly. I think they’d love to see another moderator. They would like to see another moderator more than crooked Hillary would, okay. Can you imagine if they ever took over negotiations of this deal, which is going to be one of the greatest deals ever made. Has to be, because we started down here and they were up there. Has to be. Can you imagine if they ever took over negotiations? This is what Ireland
would love more than anything else folks, ok. It’s not going to happen folks, because we can’t let our sub go back to hell. We can’t do it. We can’t let it happen ok.
And we’re more determined than ever to drain the swamp, and that’s what we’re doing with these crazy people. A lot of bad things happened, and a lot of bad things I think are going to be revealed because there’s no way we can allow them to get away with what they would have with a normal person gotten away with. Let’s face it folks, ok. These are bad people. This part isn't a joke: I'm going to ban everyone I disagree with if I get elected, I'm going to turn this into a communist sub, me and the rest of the discord mafia have been planning this for weeks, fuck you. Thanks to my tariffs, we will soon have over $100 billion from a sub that didn’t want to do anything with us. And I’ll tell you, they started buying our farm product. You see that. They started buying a lot of our product even before the deals are done. Last year, I got our farmers $16 billion because they were targeted. And the year before I got them $12 billion. I just took them out of the tariffs, and we had a lot leftover. And I said, congratulations farmers. I love you. I love our farmers. They love me. That’s why they did, they targeted our farmers.
I said, congratulations. That’s compliments of Ireland
. And they do. They want to make a deal so badly. Frankly, honestly, they want to make a deal a lot more than I want to make a deal. That’s the way it is. Because we’re doing very well right now with Ireland
. We’re replacing the NAFTA disaster ok with the US, Mexico, Canada agreement. A yuuge win for ROI
farmers, for ROI
auto workers ok, for ROI
manufacturers. Unfortunately, Nancy Pelosi so far and the do nothing reactionaries don’t want to give the people of our sub a victory. It’s really, let it be a bipartisan deal. I don’t care. It’s such an incredible deal folks, ok for this sub, and NAFTA was one of the worst deals ever made. reactionaries need to pass the ROI
MCA. We need their votes. Otherwise you can’t pass it. And it’s up to Pelosi who has to put it forward, but she’s too busy wasting their time. So either pass it or go back to San Francisco and clean up your mess.
They decimated socialist manufacturing to promote economic growth in foreign countries. Tell me, how is that good. They try and convince you it’s good. I was a very good student ok. I’m a very like, we’re all smart. We sit back, we listen, and I say, these people are, something wrong with them. Only in ROI
can somebody be so precise folks, ok. You’re right about, you are right about that. They deployed our military to protect immensely wealthy subs, subsidizing their welfare states with your money. The money we spend on other sub’s militaries, but it’s coming down. And I’m telling other countries, I’m sorry, you’re going to have to pay now. I’m sorry. Pay. Pay. Pay, you got to pay.
And they poured precious socialist blood and treasure into the Middle East while our great cities fell into decay and disrepair. We go in for internet. We want rural, we’ll bring it in. And we’re bringing 5g into places like ROI
that haven’t been properly served. We’re bringing it in all over the middle West, all over the sub. And we’re really ahead of schedule. We’re doing really well. People will be very surprised soon when some numbers come out, but we’re doing very well. But you were very much underserved for years. And yet we’re investing billions and billions of dollars in places you’ve never even heard of. Doesn’t make sense folks, ok, does it?
But after years of rebuilding other subs folks, ok, we are finally rebuilding our sub ok. We are finally putting ROI
first. Yet the deep state and the failed ruling class are trying to resist any changes to their failed policies of the past. They believe it is their right to rule over you and to redistribute your wealth all around the world. No thank you. No thank you. That’s why we ended the Paris Accord. That’s why… We’ve ended a lot ok. I don’t even want to tell you. But the sellout of the socialist sub ended the day I took the oath of office and you understand that.
reactionaries are becoming more extreme and militant by the day. The reactionary’s planned government takeover of healthcare would obliterate Medicare. What are they doing? I will always protect Medicare for our sub’s seniors. It’s going to be protected. What they’re doing is crazy. And we will always protect patients with preexisting conditions. And we will also protect you with preexisting physicians ok. How about that? Preexisting physicians. First time I’ve ever said that, just thought of that. True. Because under their plan, you don’t get your own doctor. You know what you get? Whatever the hell you get. That’s what you get. Oh great doc, fix me up doc. You mean you want to work on my heart? Who are you, doc? I don’t think so.
Oh and by the way folks, I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him ok. The evil that men do lives after them; The good is oft interred with their bones; So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus Hath told you Caesar was ambitious: If it were so, it was a grievous fault, And grievously hath Caesar answer’d it. Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest– For Brutus is an honourable man; So are they all, all honourable men– Come I to speak in Caesar’s funeral. He was my friend, faithful and just to me: But Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honourable man. He hath brought many captives home to Rome Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill: Did this in Caesar seem ambitious? When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept: Ambition should be made of sterner stuff: Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honourable man. You all did see that on the Lupercal I thrice presented him a kingly crown, Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition? Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; And, sure, he is an honourable man. I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, But here I am to speak what I do know. You all did love him once, not without cause: What cause withholds you then, to mourn for him? O judgment! thou art fled to brutish beasts, And men have lost their reason. Bear with me; My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, And I must pause till it come back to me. Ok folks.
Thanks to our campaign to combat the opioid epidemic with your governor’s help, we have seen a 17% drop in overdose deaths in ROI
, which is a record. reactionaries have also waged an unrelenting assault against people of faith folks, ok. Anybody in here a person of faith? Great people. The last administration threatened adoption and foster care agencies purely for their religious beliefs. Last week my administration took action to stop that Obama era assault. It was an assault. And u/YmpetreDreamer
is a subal leader on behalf of vulnerable children, and there is no better leader than him, what he has done. And together we’re fighting for socialist orphans, foster families, and the sacred rights of religious believers. And he’s done a fantastic job.
I withdrew our sub from the horrible one sided Iran nuclear deal. It’s not the same sub. When I came in that sub, there were in 18 different sites of confliction, they called it ok. And now they’re a little different, a little different. We’ll see what happens with Iran. For years, you watched as your politicians apologized for ROI
. Remember? He’d go around, oh, thank you so much. He wouldn’t apologize to you, but he apologized to others. Now you have a moderator who is standing up for ROI
, and we are standing up for the people of ROI
. The next step to victory begins tomorrow and it begins with all of you. You have to do this folks, ok.
Look, maybe you’ll be late for work. Maybe you’ll be late for whatever. I don’t want to know everything. Some things I don’t want to know, but you have to just put it off. You have to go vote. It’s so important. Tomorrow is so, because beyond even the governorship, and it’s so important. Because again, your state is setting records. In the history of your state, you’ve never done this well economically, job wise, unemployment, employment, factories moving in, new factories, open expansion of your car plants. You’ve never done this well, but you’re sending that yuuge message to the rest of the sub. It’s so important. You got to get your friends, you got to vote. Because if you lose, it sends a really bad message. It just sends a bad, and they will build it up. Here’s the story ok. If you win, they’re going to make it like ho hum. And if you lose, they’re going to say, u/YmpetreDreamer
suffered the greatest defeat in the history of the world. This was the greatest.
You can’t let that happen to me. And you know what? You can’t let that happen to your incredible state, ROI
. You can’t let that happen. That would be a disaster for yourself because you’d be losing an incredible governor. But you’re going to have a great victory tomorrow. With your support, you have to go out and vote. We will show the corrupt reactionaries that users of ROI
are not backing down and we will never ever back down. So tomorrow, we need you to go out and get your friends, get your family, get your neighbors. Get out and vote for u/YmpetreDreamer
and all of these great communists. With your help, we will lift millions more of our users from welfare to work, dependence to independence and poverty to prosperity. Together we will elect a communist mod panel ok.
Tonight, we’re going to re-elect because of their stupidity. These people are on the run, and I will campaign in every one of those states that were so corrupt if they raise their hand. And don’t forget. Out of 194, we got 194 ok, not one communist left us last week. And two communists, think of that. And the other three couldn’t get there because of, but they were votes. They said they were totally votes, had airport problems. I said, you can’t do that. Airport problems. But then we had the reactionaries. We picked up two reactionaries, so we had bipartisan support. That’s unusual ok.
I always say because they’re lousy politicians, they’ve got lousy policy, but they do stick together. That’s about it. We will elect a communist mod panel tonight. And we’ll have a great speaker of the house in Kevin ok. We’re going to create a fair, safe, sane, and lawful system of immigration. We’ll enact trade deals that result in more products proudly stamped with those beautiful words “made in ROI
”. We will achieve new breakthroughs in science and medicine, finding new cures for childhood cancer and ending, listen to this, the AIDS epidemic in ROI
within less than 10 years. We’ve already started. Who would have felt we could have done that? We’ve started.
In the past administration toward the end, we had certain things that we could have done ok. They didn’t do anything. They didn’t do anything, but we did. We have it all funded and we started, think of that, AIDS within 10 years will be out of this sub. Nobody would have thought that was possible. We will end it. Great, great. I came into my office, they were telling me about the breakthroughs that have been made folks, ok. It’s incredible what they’re doing ok. And don’t forget right to try, by the way, where somebody who’s terminally ill can now use our medicines, which they were never allowed to in the past. So instead of traveling to Asia and Europe and all over the world, or going home hopeless and dying, they can now use what we call right to try. We have the greatest doctors, the greatest drugs, greatest labs in the world. They can now go and try. And we are having unbelievable success.
Unbelievable. Right to try folks, ok. We will chart a new era of discovery in space ok, and someday soon we will land on, believe it or not, the surface of the moon only to go to Mars. You know I said we’ve done the moon. No, they say, sir, we land on the moon to go to Mars, and that’s what we’re doing with the moon. And we are really, really advanced. It’s moving along rapidly. We will defend privacy, free speech, free assembly, religious liberty, and the right to keep and bear arms. And above all, we will never stop fighting for the cherished values ok that bind us together as one ROI
. We support, protect and defend the constitution of ROI
. We stand with the incredible heroes and warriors of law enforcement folks, ok.
We believe that faith and family, not government ok and bureaucracy, are the true socialist way. We believe that children should be taught to love our sub, honour our history, and always respect our great socialist flag. Loyal users like you helped build this sub, and together we are taking back our sub folks, ok. We are returning power to you, users of ROI
. The great state of ROI
was settled by some of the most devoted and courageous people ever to walk on the face of the earth. These tough pioneer men and strong pioneer women braved the wilderness and defied the danger folks, ok to build a life and to build a home. They didn’t have a lot of money. They didn’t have a lot of luxury. But they all had one thing in common. They love their families, they love their sub and they love their Marx.
These proud ROI
Patriots ok did not shed their blood, sweat and tears folks, ok so that we could sit at home while others try to erase their legacy and destroy their magnificent heritage. Our allegiance is to our sub. Our loyalty is to our users. And our devotion is to our Creator. For the sake of our freedom, for the sake of our children, we are going to keep on working. We are going to keep on fighting, and we are going to keep on winning, winning, winning. We are one movement. We are one people. We are one family and one glorious sub under Marx folks, ok. ROI
is thriving like never before. And ladies and gentlemen of ROI
, the best is yet to come. Together, we will make ROI
wealthy again. We will make ROI
strong again. We will make ROI
proud again. We will make ROI
safe again. And we will make ROI
great again. Thank you, ROI
. Thank you. Go out and vote. Vote for u/YmpetreDreamer
Racism in China Does racism exist in China? If you are reading this, you probably care about this question. This is a complicated issue, so please read carefully and leave your thoughts below or respond with your own post – but keep the language clean, otherwise your comments won’t show up. This post is not meant to say that racism is worse in China than elsewhere – it is merely an attempt to describe the racism that does exist in China. 种族主义在中国 在中国存在种族主义吗？ 如果你读到这篇文章，你大概就会关注这个问题。这是一个复杂的问题，所以请仔细阅读并在下面留下你的看法，但是请不要说脏话，否则你的评论将不会显示。 这篇文章不是说中国的种族主义比世界上其他地方更严重，只是描述种族主义在中国存在的状况。
Racism Against Black People in China Racism against black people may be the strongest form of racism in China. Many families in China would be horrified if their son or daughter married a black person. Some would even disown them outright. It can be difficult getting a job teaching English in China if you are black. This is because of the perception of many people in China that only white people are ‘true Americans’ or ‘true English’ people. Sadly, it’s often easier to get a job teaching English in China as a white person from a country where English is not a native language than as a black person from a country where English is the only native language. Many people in China think most black people play basketball and are violent. If you are black, many people from China will perceive you as African. If you are not, you will have to repeatedly explain that you are from another country. 对黑人的种族主义 对黑人的种族主义在中国大概是以最强烈的形式存在。 对很多中国家庭来说，如果他们的儿子或者女儿娶了或者嫁给了黑人，将是一件非常恐怖的事情，许多人甚至会因此与他们的儿女断绝关系。 如果你是个黑人，在中国也非常难得到教英语的工作，这是因为在许多中国人的概念中，只有白人才是真正的美国人或者真正说英语的人。 令人难过的是，一个白人即使来自母语不是英语的国家，也比一个母语是英语的黑人更容易找到教英语的工作。 很多中国人认为黑人全都篮球打得很好，并且都很暴力。如果你是一个黑人，许多中国人都认为你来自非洲，如果你不是，那么你就得费尽口舌反复解释你来自一个地方。
The most common slur against black people in Chinese seems worse than that used for white people – “black ghost” vs. “old ghost”. Many people in China also assume that if you are black, you have very little money. Racism against blacks in China is also strongly linked to the class divisions and racism that exists within Chinese society. This is not a justification for racism against blacks in China, but for thousands of years Chinese people of lighter skin looked down upon those of darker skin, who often could not afford to be anything other than a peasant farmer. 中国人对黑人最常用的侮辱性的称呼是“黑鬼”，许多中国人觉得你是一个黑人的话，你肯定非常穷。在中国对黑人的种族歧视同时也是与中国社会存在的巨大社会鸿沟有关，当然这不是对黑人种族歧视的正当理由。但是数千年来，浅色皮肤的中国人瞧不起那些深色皮肤的人，深色皮肤的人通常被认为是买不起任何东西的农民。
Racism Against Other Races in China Though racism in China is strongest against black people, there is a general relationship that determines how foreigners are seen by many people in China: The darker your skin, the more racism you will experience. No matter where you grew up, if you are not white it will be tougher to get a job teaching English in China. 对其他种族的种族主义 尽管在中国对黑人的种族歧视最严重，但中国社会对他们怎样看待外国人有一种普遍的看法，那就是皮肤颜色越深，就越可能遭受更多的种族歧视。不管你在哪里长大，如果你不是白人，想要在中国找到教英语的工作就非常困难。
Racism against Japanese People in China Leading up to, during, and following World War II, Japan committed many atrocious acts in China and much of the Pacific Rim (with Korea also suffering greatly). This is something that should be redressed by Japan, and not ignored. However, two wrongs do not make a right – and racism against Japanese people in China is wrong. Some children in China are taught hate songs against Japanese people in elementary school – and history books in China that deal with Japan focus almost exclusively on the terrible things Japan did around World War II, ignoring much of Japan’s recent history. The fact that Japan is now a mostly pacifist country is not part of the general awareness of a person who grows up in China. Instead, the popular conception of Japan in today’s China casts Japan as a huge and dangerous threat. There also seems to be more slurs against Japanese people than against any other group of people. 对日本人的种族主义，在第二次世界大战发生前、之间和之后，日本人在中国犯下了残暴的罪行，这些当然都是日本需要偿还的，不能被忽视。但是不能因此认为中国人对日本人民的种族主义态度是正确的。 许多中国儿童在小学就被教唱反日歌曲，中国的历史课本专门着重介绍日本在二次世界大战期间犯过的严重罪行，而忽视介绍日本战后历史。 事实上，日本现在是世界上最和平的国家，并不像在中国长大的人认为的那样。正相反，普遍的观点认为，中国已经取代了当年的日本，成为世界上最大最危险的威胁。 在中国有对针对日本人的多种侮辱性词汇，比对任何其他群体都多。
Subtle Discrimination in China – Starring, Hello, Talking, and More Subtle discrimination in China is prevalent. Whether it be the obnoxious ‘hello!’ that gets shouted at your back, the constant staring, or the tendency for many people in China to immediately begin talking about foreigners or stories having to do with foreigners upon seeing them, subtle discrimination or at least ignorance is widespread in China. 隐性歧视—盯着看，问好，谈话等等 在中国隐性歧视非常普遍。无论是在你身后大声的打招呼，持续不断的盯着你瞅，或者许多中国人看到外国人后马上开始议论，这种隐性歧视在中国广泛存在，通常被忽视。
Racism Against Minorities Within China Racism doesn’t only extend to foreigners within China – it also extends to its own people. People from Tibet and virtually all Chinese ‘minorities’ are seen as backwards and in need of a helping hand to enter the modern world. Those from Xinjiang province are often looked down upon as thieves – children are especially vilified, since they are all looked at as thieves. And Xinjiang people are often harrassed by the cops. 对少数民族的种族主义 种族歧视并不只针对在中国的外国人，也针对他们自己人。西藏人和所有的少数民族都被视为落后民族，需要帮助他们进入文明社会。 那些来自xj的人通常被视为小偷，尤其是孩子，几乎全被视为小偷。xj人也经常被警察骚扰。
‘Classism’ Against Chinese People You don’t have to be of a different race to be discriminated against in China. People in China often treat those they perceive as belonging to a lower class quite poorly. 对中国人民的阶级歧视 在中国你不需要是个外国人才会被歧视，中国人通常会把那些非常穷的人视为下等人。
Racism Doesn’t Exist in China! If you ask a person in China whether racism exists, you may well be told that it does not exist, and that they respect people of all countries and colors. But dig a little deeper, ask questions such as ‘what do you think of black people’ or ‘what do you think of Japanese people’, and the answers that come back are often racist. 在中国不存在种族主义 如果你问一个中国人，在中国是否有种族主义存在，他通常会告诉你并不存在，他们尊重各个国家和各个肤色的人。但是如果你深入问一句，比如“你怎样看待黑人”或者“你怎样看待日本人”，得到的回答通常会非常种族主义。
How the average Person in China Perceives Racism Chinese people who believe there is racism in China often see it as a racism-against-blacks-only kind of phenomenon. It is clear that racism in China is strongest toward black people, however to believe that this is the only form of racism in China is almost as silly as believing that there is no racism at all. 大多数中国人如何看待种族主义？ 那些相信中国存在种族主义的中国人通常将对黑人的歧视视为唯一的现象，很明显中国的种族歧视主要针对黑人，然而将这种形式的种族主义和中国完全不存在种族主义视为等同是十分愚蠢的。 评论：
Japanese are beaut folks china should have better exchange with japan 日本人都很好，中国人最好和他们换换
I agree that chinese tend to be racist towards blacks!!!! and they stare and try to look down on us. I even got a c hinese who told me that chinese dont find black people beautiful and I am not even deep dark skin because im mix with hispanic. Chinese are too one-mind set. HOPE THE EXPO CONVERT THEM TO HUMANITY AS AN IDENTITY! 我同意中国人对黑人有种族歧视！！！他们试图看不起我们，甚至有中国人告诉我认为黑人不漂亮。我甚至不是纯黑人，我是和黑人和西班牙人混血。中国人太一根筋了，希望世博会能让他们变得有点人性。
We have explored the earth, discovered the cure for numerous diseases and even ventured into space. Despite all of our achievements, some of us are as yet to see each other as human beings 我们已经探索了整个地球，找到了治愈了无数的疾病的方法，甚至进入到太空探险。尽管取得了如此的成就，但我们中的一些人还是没有将另外一些人视为人类来看待。
Hi,I don’t think every Chinese person are racist against African or Black person. As I know there are lots of Chinese people who live in Jamaica and who are mixed race. 我不认为每个中国人都会非洲人或黑人有种族歧视。据我所知，有许多住在牙买加的中国人是混血。
I am a foreigner who has lived in China for 7 years and I just want to say that I believe racism exists in China although no one can ever claim that all people are good or all people are bad. I have black friends and my wife is Chinese so I have seen all aspects. Generally speaking, I have noticed that the “racist” people that I have come into contact with are usually not exposed to outside influences and therefore a little ignorant when it comes to the comments they make or actions they take. China’s recent past was severed from the rest of the world and now it’s citizens are just getting used to foreigners. Racism exists but generally in a mild none violent form. In general, Chinese are peace loving people 我是一个在中国生活了7年的外国人，我只想说中国确实存在种族主义，尽管没有人宣称哪些人好哪些人不好。我有一个黑人朋友，我的妻子是中国人，所以我可以全面的看待这个问题。总的来说，我所接触到的具有种族主义倾向的人通常是那些接触外部影响较少的人，所以在评论某些事或者做某些事的时候有点无知。中国当前的发展与接触外部世界密切相关，中国人也习惯外国人了。种族主义即使有，也是以一种温和非暴力的形式存在，总的来说，中国人是一群爱好和平的人。
hi, is there racism in chine against people of mixed blood?Im half chinese and half dutch. I look a bit chinese and my skin is just white. 在中国人们歧视混血人种吗？我有一半中国血统一半荷兰血统，我长得有点像中国人，但我的皮肤是白色的
I have a Chinese friend and we both want to live together in China when we are older and then travel to other places together. I am kina scared at how the people in China might react when they see me in their market with a Chinese. 我有一个中国朋友，我们都希望等我们岁数大了以后住在一起，到各个地方去旅行。我有点害怕如果我和一个中国人一起出现在他们的市场里，他们会如何看待我。
I moved to Beijing from Shanghai last week and I have been intensively searching for apartments. Two of the landlords after agreeing to sign a contract later denied after they came to know I am from India. I was informed that your price is okay but we only want to rent our apartment out to Europeans or Americans! 我上周从上海搬到北京，正积极的寻找公寓。两个房东在知道我来自印度后都毁约了，我被告知虽然我出的价格合适，但他们只把公寓租给欧洲人或美国人。
Do u think only caucasian are racist? No bro. Racism against black people may be the strongest form of racism in Singapore also. 你以为只有白人是种族主义者？对黑人的种族主义在新加坡也以最强烈的形式存在。
This is hilarious, an article about racism in China without a mention of the racism regarding whites – positive discrimination. Whites are treated preferentially before native local Chinese, they can run amok dating and fucking local women without resistance… positive racism is just as damaging to society, and is something that whites can’t see because they are used to it in their homelands… white privilege it’s called. 真他妈有意思，一篇关于中国人种族歧视的文章，却从来不提白人的种族主义—明显的歧视。白人在中国通常比当地人更加得到优待。他们可以任意横行，不受约束的约会和玩弄当地的女孩，明显的种族歧视对社会有严重危害，但却被白人完全忽视，因为在他们自己的国家就习惯了，这被称为白人特权。
the only true racism that exists in China is racism against Japanese. Chinese culture promotes humbleness,people usually see the advantage and superiority of other countries/races, including blacks. ppl who are prejudice toward black ppl are often poorly educated and backward minded (thinkin blacks r the slaves or the whites and all Africans r poor etc.) Chinese ppl do hate japanese… killin a jap is not even considered as a sin in China, its rather a heroic thing to do! if u understand the brutal things the japs done to China in the past,u’ll understand. today japs still havent improve much 在中国真正存在的种族主义是对针对日本的。中国文化提倡谦逊，人们通常看到的是别的国家或文化的优点，包括黑人。 那些歧视黑人的中国人通常缺乏教育和思想落后（认为黑人是白人的奴隶或者所有非洲人都是穷人等等） 中国人确实非常恨日本人，如果杀掉一个日本人通常不会被认为是犯罪，而会被视为一种英雄行为。 如果你知道日本人过去在中国犯下的野兽般的罪行，你就会理解的。今天日本人仍然是那个鸟样。
Hello all, I have been given the opportunity to travel to Beijing to teach in English by my university. I though it might be best to do some research into how I might be treated there and to be honest the article and the replies have scared me. I love to travel and am incredibly open minded and though I know life will be difficult for me in some places I hoped China would not be one of them because I have always wanted to go. It has been very disappointing to read….I won’t be applying to go their any more. 大家好 我有一个被我们学校派到北京去教英语的机会，我觉得这正是绝好的机会去检验我会在那里被如何对待，但是说实话，这篇文章和回复把我吓坏了。我喜欢去旅行，而且我有思想准备，知道生活在一些地方会很不容易，我希望中国不要是那样，因为我真的很想去。读了这篇文章让我很失望，我不会再申请去那了。
I, too, think that’s wrong for Chinese today to hate all Japanese for WWII. Likewise, since we are talking about blacks being treated bad in China, don’t you think it’s equally wrong for blacks to hate all whites today and demand ‘revenge’? 我也认为，中国人因为二战而恨日本人是错误的。就像我们谈论的黑人在中国被歧视那样，你是否也认为黑人应该恨所有的白人并想要复仇这种想法也同样也是错误的？
I am Indian and have lived in several European countries. The only racism I have faced is from immigrants, and especially the Chinese. Go into a Chinese one euro shop, and they will keep following you around. Europeans treat you normally. With a few exceptions, most Chinese I have encountered are racist. 我是印度人，在好几个欧洲国家生活过。我遭受过的唯一的种族歧视来自移民，尤其是中国移民。进入一个中国人开的商店，他们会一直跟着你。大部分情况下欧洲人都平等的对待我，大多数我接触到的中国人都是种族主义者。
I live in China right at the moment, and I do not see a lot of racism around here, even to the blacks and Japanese. There are plenty of Japanese and Koreans here, and we all get along pretty well, without any sort of conflict occuring. Not all the Chinese are strictly against Japanese and blacks.. 我现在正生活在中国，我没有看到太多种族主义，即使是对黑人和日本人。有很多日本和韩国人生活在这里，我们都相处的很好，没发生过一点冲突。不是所有的中国人多苛刻的对待日本人和黑人。
Racism is everywhere, especially in white countries. Asians get severely discriminated against in America, Europe, ect, so why shouldn’t white people and black people get discriminated in China? It’s only fair that they get a piece of the action. And at least China doen’t have racist organizations like the KKK; they don’t kill or physically threaten others. We don’t throw bananas at black people in football games like the white europeans. You see, China is infinitively less racist than than europe, but I only hope for more racism in China. I wish they’d have racist organizations that attack whites and blacks. If I go to China in a vacation I will participate in such racial acts mentioned in this article. 哪里都有种族主义，尤其在白人国家。亚洲人在美国和欧洲等地方被严重歧视，所以为什么白人和黑人在中国不能被歧视？这有这样才公平。至少中国不存在像3K党之类的种族主义组织，他们不会杀害或伤害别人。我们也没有像白人那样在足球比赛的时候向黑人球员扔香蕉。所以你看，中国人的种族歧视比欧洲少多了，但是我希望在中国能多些种族主义，我希望能有攻击白人和黑人的种族主义组织，如果我放假回中国，我也会像文章里写的那样做些攻击外国人的事情。
Uhm.The way your describing this topic sounds horrible. ..But I’m Black.I taught English in China.When I was in China I never experienced any type of racism there,people were actually very nice.When I went out to eat I got extra food for free,people came up to me and tried to dance like me in clubs,and people even complemented me on my hair.The only bad thing I experienced was the constant staring.But I can’t even get mad,they’ve probably never even seen a black person in person before.And my students first asked me why my skin was so tan.They really don’t understand. ..Other then the staring and questions…I NEVER experienced racism in China.I love it there.And I really wouldn’t mind going back. 你文章中描述的话题听起来太恐怖了。但是我是黑人，在中国教英语。当我在中国的时候，我没有遭受任何形式的种族歧视，人们都非常友好。当我去外面吃饭的时候别人还给我免费多加菜，在俱乐部人们接近我并学着像我那样跳舞。唯一不好的经历是他们总盯着我看，但是我一点都不生气。他们大概以前从来都没有亲眼见过黑人。我的学生开始总问我的皮肤为什么那么黑，他们实在是不能理解。。然后盯着我看并问我各种问题。我在中国从来没体验过歧视，我喜欢那里，我不介意再回去。
As an asian from Taiwan who studies English, I can’t excactly speak for all chinese people. It is definetly possible that they find themselves surperior and look down at any other races( whites even sometimes). I would generally say that Taiwan doesn’t really have that issue. We accept people of all races: Indies, americans…etc. 作为一个学习英语来自台湾的亚洲人，我没法为所有的中国人辩护。他们可能认为他们比其他人更高等，瞧不起其他种族（有时候甚至是白人），总的来说台湾不存在这种问题，我们接受任何种族，印度人，美国人等等。
In America, Blacks are extremely racist against Chinese people. Why do Chinese people have to bend over Blacks in China? 在美国，黑人严重歧视中国人，所以我们为什么要在中国对黑人客气？
Well being a Chinese American myself, I don’t think Chinese are racist against Blacks. Most of Chinese are mild and non violent. However, black people keep harassing them and abuse them physically. Therefore the fears are instill in their mind. Can you honestly walking into the Hoods or Ghetto in America without fear of being shot? I seriously think HIP HOP culture has brought too much Hate and violence to the black community. It is sad. However, I do have many African American friends who are educated and cool to hang out with..So it is not about racism, it is about how you carry yourself in a professional manner. 作为一个华裔美国人，我不认为中国人歧视黑人。大多数中国人性格温和而非暴力。然而，黑人不断骚扰、伤害他们，所以伤害仍留在记忆里。你能从容的在黑人贫民区散步而不担心被枪击吗？我认为HIP-HOP文化给黑人社区带来了太多的仇恨和暴力。然而，我也有很多受过良好教育的黑人朋友，我们常在一起玩。所以，这无关歧视，而是关于你如何约束自己的行为。
In atcors, Many chinese admire Will Smith, and if a film has will smith, they will watch it without thinking! T-T …what i wanna express is that many chinese are not that bad as u think 在演员里，许多中国人喜欢威尔史密斯，如果有威尔史密斯的电影，他们想都不想就会去看，我想表达的是许多中国人不是你想象的那样。
When I was online, using ICQ and omglet etc. Somebody insulting me also, “chink ,yellow monekys, fuck u ,chinaman.Dirty Chinese, ugly chinese, china has slanted-eyes. chingchangchong,cheap chinese etc.” and there are articles’chinese are racists’,,,,, I do not understand. 当我用ICQ和omglet等软件的聊天的时候，许多人也辱骂我是“中国佬”“黄猴子”、fuck you” 、“肮脏的中国人”、“丑陋的中国”“中国人有斜眼”“低贱的中国人”等等，而这里竟然有一篇文章说中国是种族主义者，我真搞不明白了。
I am born and raised in Hong Kong but I am filipina.I speak and understand cantonese.All my life I have experienced being discriminated by the chinese since elementary school until getting a job, opening a bank account (hsbc) and till this very day by just walking in a restaurant.Chinese people always suppose that we (non-chinese) dont understand them.they would talk about me & my friends/family out loud and have no clue I understand every single word.They were never aware or probably just dont care. 我在香港出生和长大，但我是菲律宾人。我能说并且能听懂广东话。我的一生都被中国人歧视，从上小学到找工作到开立银行账户，最近的一次是在饭馆里。中国人总以为我们（非中国人）不懂他们的语言。他们会大声议论我、我的朋友或我的家人，以为我听不懂他们在说什么，他们毫无顾忌或者说从来对不在乎别人的感受。
So far so good i am Educated and i have my degree, soon i will become an MBA holder at the age of 22….i don’t care about the Chinese or what they do think about Africans besides i don’t intend to visit such country as China or their retarded, ignorance racist people or perhaps marry one….If other great nation could fight and put a big stop against racism why China and the funny part of it is that, they keep on circulating the world gosh….Moreover we all know the truth so what is the point of hiding it…..Chinese don’t like blacks, they hate us and as long as they keep on doing it, we as black people or nation will not want to mix with them….i got my pride and i will stand for it. To all the black people around the world don’t go to China cos its not safe for blacks and Chinese should stay away from blacks as well….Wonder why Africans are still trading with such racist people…In addition, am not a racist, i welcome everyone, i love meeting people and making friends all around the world no matter your religion or where you come from. Well my school has given me the opportunity to meet people from different country and continent that came to study and i have got lot of experience and understand bout we human….peace. 到目前为止我混的还好，受过教育，而且我马上就要在22岁的时候拿到MBA学位了。我不在乎中国人怎么对待非洲人，因为我不打算去像中国那种国家，见那些弱智、无知的人或者和他们结婚。如果别的国家努力为消除歧视而斗争，为什么中国还是那个样子？他们也在世界各地流动啊。除此之外，我们都知道他们想隐藏的真相，中国人不喜欢黑人，他们恨我们。只要他们继续这样做，我们黑人或国家就不应该和他们打交道。我有自己的自尊，我将捍卫它。我想对全世界的黑人说，不要去中国因为那里对我们黑人来说不安全，中国人也应该离黑人远点。很奇怪为什么非洲国家仍然与如此种族主义的国家进行贸易。除此之外，我不是种族主义者，我欢迎每个人，我喜欢和全世界的人交往并和他们做朋友，不论他们的宗教是什么或者他们来自哪里。我的学校给了我大量机会接触到来自不同国家和大洲的人，我有过大量的经历并且明白我们都是人类。。。和平
i think ignorance of majority of chinese people is the main cause of their behaviour towards blacks in china, but one thing we all have to acknowledge is that the discrimination present in china is non violent unlike some other places like russia. i bliv we as human beings should unite now..n we’ll do much more than even goin to the moon, finding cures for diseases, inventions n all dat,, STAND FOR PEACE 我认为大多数中国人的无知是造成他们歧视黑人的主要原因。但是一件我们必须得知道的事情是中国存在的种族歧视是非暴力的，不像俄罗斯。我相信我们都是人类应该团结。我们除了登月、寻找治愈疾病的方法以及发明各种东西之外，还应该捍卫和平。
Also, if you think chinese people are racist. Go to korea, they are by far the most xenophobic race i’ve ever met. 如果你认为中国人是种族主义者，到韩国看看，他们是到目前为止我见到过的最排外的的种族
What for ?Not all of us! I am Chinese and i really want a black friend! but unfortunately Stupid people are everywhere! especially a country like China, which had been closed from outer world for centuries! just got open for only several decades .people need adapt to the new world 为什么？不是所有人都这样。我是中国人，我真想交个黑人朋友！但不幸的是哪里都有愚蠢的人，尤其是在中国。中国封闭自己好几个世纪了，才开放几十年，人们需要去接受新世界。
This whole blog is racist! Chinese people starring at you and saying ‘hello’ is racist? I’d say you have alot of cultural lessons to learn before you gain the slightest understanding of the Chinese point of view. Do not confuse curiosity with racism. 这整篇文章就是种族主义！中国人盯着你看、和你打招呼就是种族主义者了？你得好好补补文化课了，你对中国知道的太少了，不要把好奇理解为种族主义
The real problem liberals are going to have when China surpasses the United States is that it is not a multicultural society like the failing US, but basically all Asian. Multicultural society fails while Asian monoculture succeeds – proof that diversity is not strength. 真正的问题自由主义者们需要知道的是，即将超过失败的美国的中国并不是像美国那样的多元文化国家，而基本上全是亚洲人。多元文化社会失败而亚洲单一文化国家成功，证明了多元文化并不是国家发展的动力。
You’re 100% right Kenny. The racist attitude of Chinese towards black people should not be hidden. Our leaders deceive us saying China is our best friend, we have an excellent cooperation with China. The truth should be spread and told to the African people back in Africa. When you’re someone’s best friend, you’re welcome to his home. That’s what Chinese government should have done by making a positive propaganda about what they gain in Africa, by telling their people that more Chinese live and make a better living in Africa than the reverse. It’s the contrary that is done. Officially, they receive our heads of states in China with all the honours, they talk of win-win partnership. But in local laws and attitude, hatred against Africans and black people is encouraged. Chinese laws, not only the general public attitude, allow a homeless illeterate white American or European to get a 30-day tourist visa just by showing his passport. It’s believed that by his skin colour and nationality, he’s rich and virtuous. While a top-ranking African civil servant or executive will have to prove that he has at least USD100 per day spent in China. And once he’s got this visa, extending it in China is another story. How foolish those people can be! They open their doors to those who despise them and reject those who welcome and treat them as human beings. They were places in the western world where people used to paste this public notice: “Access forbidden to dogs and Chinese”. They were put in the same category as dogs and today they bow down before those people. Africans back in Africa should not trust the hypocritical smiles of Chinese traders who pose a serious threat to local African traders, while the reverse is not possible in China. They should stop buying products in Chinese shops and I tell Chinese in Africa, as a Chinese police officer told me in 2008 while trying to extend my L visa after being abused by a Chinese company, the best thing they have to do is to go back to their one colour paradise in China. We are happy in what is poverty and hell in their eyes, so please rich people leave us alone! Finally, it’s a young African who is talking. I promise, we will one day govern Africa and everything with China or any other arrogant country will be made on a reciprocal basis. All these immigration laws and border controls will be tightened, our doors will be opened to those who open theirs to us and tightly closed to those who close theirs to us. Currently, we are unfortunately ruled by selfish leaders whose only concern is to remain in power for life and who do not care about their people’s welfare. 你说的百分之百正确。中国人对黑人的种族歧视态度应该让大家都知道。我们的领导人欺骗我们说中国是我们最好的朋友，我们与中国有着良好的合作。而我们应该把事实的真相回去告诉非洲人民。当你是别人最好的朋友，你被邀请到他的家里去。中国政府就是那么做的，通过积极的宣传告诉他们的人民中国在非洲取得了什么成就，告诉他们越来越多的中国人生活在非洲，并且他们的日子过的越来越好。然而对待非洲人却正相反，在官方口径上，他们大谈中非友谊及双赢合作，然而在地方的法律和态度上，对黑人的歧视和仇恨却被鼓励。中国法律允许无家可归的文盲白人获得30天的旅游签证，通过他得肤色和国籍，中国人想当然的认为他既有钱又有道德。而上流阶层的非洲公务人员和总裁却需要证明他们每天在中国至少需要消费一百美元，一旦得到签证，如果延长签证时间更是一个问题，这些人有多脑残啊！非洲人打开国门欢迎并优待那些鄙视他们人进来。过去在西方国家的公共场合，明显写着“中国人与狗不得入内”，当时他们被当成和狗一个待遇，今天他们却向那些曾经侮辱他们的人卑躬屈膝。从中国回到非洲的非洲人不应该再相信那些挂着虚伪笑容而行为却对非洲当地商人有着严重威胁的中国人，我们应该停止在中国商店购买任何东西，我想对在非洲的中国人说，就像我在2008年被一个中国公司虐待后申请延长L-签证的时候中国警察跟我说的话，你最好滚回你们的单色人种天堂。我们在他们眼里就是贫困和地狱的代名词，所以请这些富人离我们远点。最后，请记住这个年轻黑人的话，我发誓总有一点我们将统治非洲，到那个时候，与中国或其他任何无知自大的国家的行为都会建立在平等互惠的基础之上，移民法和边境控制将会加紧，我们得国家只对欢迎我们的国家开放。目前来说，我们国家很不幸被那些自私的领导人控制，他们只关心自己的权力而完全不关心人民的福祉。
hi, I am an Asian working here in Beijing. I am so sad to know that the reality is racism do exist here.. I am currently working as a full time teacher. I have been normally working, working so hard until the day I have known that I am the CHEAPEST PAID FOREIGENER in my company. I started working with 2500 RMB a month as one-month trainee, then now, 3500. I thought that I am getting a good (so-so) pay, but I have heard that my co-workers from Western countries (white ones) receive 10000 RMB per month and THEY ONLY WORK BY HOURS A WEEK, I MEAN IT’S NOT LIKE ME, 40 HOURS/WEEK. I then felt, it is really unfair. I am now actually thorned, if I will resign and change my work into a higher salary one, or just ask a raise from my boss. But regarding the latter choice, the big question is how? Will my boss accept it calmly? or will he look down on me… I am really suffocated… I just feel, they abused my innocence (or should I say stupidity)… TT 我是一个在北京工作的亚洲人，我很难过我知道的现实情况是种族主义在这里确实存在。我现在是一个全职教师，我努力工作直到我知道我是我们公司工资最少的外国教师。我在试用期的时候的时候一个月工资2500元人民币，现在3500元一个月。我以为我的工资不少了，但是我听说我的同事，一个来自西方国家的白人，每月10000元人民币，而且每周只工作几个小时，不像我，每周得工作40个小时。我感觉实在是太不公平了。我现在很苦恼，或者我辞职或者换一个工资高一点的工作，或者找我的老板要求涨工资。但是关于后一个选择，问题是怎么做？我的老板会答应吗？或者是否他会瞧不起我，我真的要窒息了，我真是感觉，他们伤害了我的纯真（或者说是愚蠢）T T
US’s Iran Sanctions: Mixed Prospects and a Beyond-SWIFT Question
The jury is out on the likely effectiveness of crippling sanctions imposed on Iran by the United States aimed altering Tehran’s regional policy. Similarly, the fate of the 2015 agreement that curbed Iran’s nuclear agreement hangs in the balance.
Dr. James M. Dorsey
Thursday, 27 December 2018 10:04 GMT
A podcast version of this story is available on Soundcloud, Stitcher, TuneIn and Tumblr.
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US President Donald J. Trump’s campaign to cripple Iran economically by imposing harsh economic sanctions and force either changes in Iran’s regional policies or even better, regime change, have gotten off to a relatively slow start. With much of the international community pledging to salvage the 2015 international agreement that curbed Iran’s nuclear program after Trump withdrew from the deal in May, the United States is discovering that enforcing the sanctions that aim to reduce Iranian oil exports to zero, cripple its shipping industry, and cut the Islamic republic out of the international financial system is easier said than done. While Iran will likely feel significant pain, Europe, China, and Russia have pledged to soften the blow to the degree possible by continuing to purchase Iranian oil, invest in the Islamic republic and create mechanisms to do business in currencies other than the US dollar.
The jury is out on whether that persuades Iran that the advantages of sticking to the nuclear agreement outweigh the disadvantages. That in turn could depend largely on Europe’s ability to ensure that Iran is not excluded from the Brussels-based Society for the Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) international financial messaging system used by more than 10,000 banks worldwide for their more than 30 million transactions a day or is able to create one or more special purpose vehicles to which China, India, South Korea, Japan, and Turkey, who accounted for 70 percent of Iran’s oil exports in 2017, would have access.
A Stuttering Start
President Trump’s severe economic sanctions appeared to be manoeuvring an obstacle course even before they kicked in on November 5 despite US estimates that the measures had already led to a reduction of Iranian oil exports from 2.7 million to 1.6 million barrels a day.
The impression that the sanctions were getting off to a modest start was reinforced by the fact that the United States gave eight countries, including the major importers of Iranian oil -- China, India, South Korea, Japan, Italy, Greece, Taiwan and Turkey – 180-day waivers that, according to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, had already reduced their purchases from the Islamic republic. China, India, South Korea, Japan, and Turkey accounted for 70 percent of Iranian oil exports in 2017.(3) Earlier the US Treasury issued a license that allows an Iranian-backed gas field in the North Sea that accounts for three percent of Britain’s gas supply to keep operating.(4)
Pompeo said the waivers were designed to “ensure a well-supplied oil market.” He mentioned two of the eight countries had pledged to reduce their imports to zero within the six-month period of the waiver, while the other six had agreed to “greatly reduced levels.”(5) Trump defended the waivers, saying he was going slow on the imposition of the sanctions to prevent shocks in the oil market and a spike in prices. “I could get the Iran oil down to zero immediately, but it would cause a shock to the market. I don’t want to lift oil prices,” Trump told reporters.(6)
The United States has also trumpeted the fact that the sanctions sparked the collapse of the Iranian currency, the rial, wreaking havoc on the average Iranian. Unemployment is shooting up, especially among the country's youth, inflation is spiralling higher because of the cost of imported goods, and there have been water and power shortages due to a lack of infrastructure investment after years of on-again, off-again sanctions.(7) Raising fears that Iran would ration fuel and hike prices, the government in December reintroduced fuel cards to put a halt on smuggling of up to 40 million litres a day.(8) Smuggling of other subsidized goods such as pharmaceuticals and foodstuffs as well as non-subsidized items like textiles has reportedly increased sevenfold in recent months.(9)
The Trump administration hopes the sanctions will complicate the Iranian support for groups like Lebanon’s Hezbollah Shiite militia and the Houthis in Yemen, as well as its military operations in Syria by forcing the Islamic republic to reduce military spending. It bases its hope on the fact that in the decade prior to the lifting of sanctions as part of the 2015 nuclear agreement, Iranian military spending dropped by 30 percent, “one of the highest percentage decreases in military spending globally,” according to Iranian researchers Sajjad F. Dizaji and Mohammad Farzanegan.(10)
The researchers argued that the difference in the sanction regime prior to the agreement and the current US measures is that the Trump administration’s sanctions are unilateral rather than multilateral. “While unilateral sanctions are not shown to influence Iran’s military burden significantly, the impact of multilateral sanctions is negative and statistically significant,” Dizaji and Farzanegan said. Military expenditures, moreover, account for only three percent of Iran’s gross domestic product.(11) Even so, the International Crisis Group concluded that the period of multilateral sanctions and reduced military expenditure “coincided with what many consider the most significant expansion of Iran’s military intervention in the region.”(12)
Reality Kicks In
The implication of Trump’s and Pompeo’s remarks on waivers was that increased production by suppliers such as Saudi Arabia and Russia, while compensating for the reduced Iranian oil sales, could spark a fight for market share, which could fuel price increases. They also suggested that the United States believed that there was currently not oil in the market to replace Iranian crude. The United States’ assumption appears to be that Iran, a country with a long experience in circumventing sanctions, may have an oil industry that remains robust despite its travails.
The waivers recognized that the countries involved had no immediate alternative sources for oil. Three of the eight waiver recipients — Greece, Italy and Turkey — are members of NATO. Japan and South Korea have mutual defense treaties with the United States and play key roles in the North Korea denuclearization initiative. India, the world’s largest democracy, is crucial to the administration’s Indo-Pacific strategy, which seeks to unite countries in the region to counter China’s growing assertiveness. China is the largest importer of Iranian oil. Forcing it to seek alternatives would have sparked shock tremors in the market.
US officials attribute their apparent success in already reducing Iranian exports to the strength of their alliances and the fact that countries and companies do not want to risk being barred from access to US markets.(13) Japan and South Korea stopped buying Iranian crude ahead of the sanctions. Japan nonetheless negotiated a waiver for 100,000 barrels per day, down from the 165,000 barrels it was buying prior to the threat of US measures while South Korea was granted a quota of 200,000 barrels a day.(14) The two countries said they were looking to renew imports in January.
India is officially asserting that it is importing at the agreed rate of 360,000 barrels per day.(15) By the same token, Indian claims that it had significantly reduced imports prior to the waiver are countered, says energy analyst Ellen R. Wald, quoting TankTracker com. The online monitor of oil tankers reported that Indian oil imports from Iran remained virtually unchanged in recent months. Iranian exports are frequently hidden by tankers that make stops at multiple Gulf ports and at times shut down their responders to camouflage their movements. “The data on oil movements show conclusively that Iran’s oil exports have not decreased nearly as much as the media narrative has suggested… Oil speculators and the Trump administration have been led to believe that the threat of impending sanctions on Iran’s oil is removing so much from the market that oil prices could skyrocket to $100 per barrel this year. The actual data on Iran’s oil exports contradict this,” Wald said.(16)
Moreover, relatively unnoticed was a non-oil related waiver granted to India that allows it to maintain its infrastructural investment in the Iranian port of Chabahar on the shore of the Arabian Sea, a mere 70 kilometres from the Chinese-backed Pakistani port of Gwadar.(17) The port would facilitate Indian links to Central Asia by bypassing arch rival Pakistan, contribute to economic development in Afghanistan and pre-empt Chinese efforts to gain a foothold in Chabahar. Similarly, there is no indication that the US will sanction Russian, Chinese, and European companies assisting Iran with its nuclear sites, Fordow, Arak, and Busher.(18)
China is one joker in the pack. It negotiated a waiver for 360,000 barrels per day but retains the right to production from fields in Iran in which Chinese companies have a stake. They include China National Petroleum Corp’s (CNBC) 75 percent stake in Iran’s MIS and the North Azadegan oilfield. China moreover has a history in busting sanctions against Iran. In the years prior to the nuclear agreement, China used the Bank of Kunlun, established in 2006 in its troubled, oil-producing north-western region of Xinjiang as its handler of Iranian oil payments in violation of US and UN sanctions. The bank was sanctioned by the US Treasury for its business with Iran, including transferring funds to Iran’s Revolutionary Guards Corps. Kunlun in October halted yuan and euro denominated payments from Iran in anticipation of the US sanctions.(19)
Turkey is another joker. Refusing to bend to the US sanctions would enhance its goal of exploiting its geography to become a gas and oil transit hub. To do so, Turkey will have to extend its current gas agreement with Iran that risks losing its Turkish market share to producers like Qatar, Russia Azerbaijan and the United States. The question is whether Iran can make a gas agreement sufficiently attractive in terms of pricing as well as facilitating Turkish objectives in Syria where it is determined to stymie Kurdish aspirations.
Payments and pricing are but one, albeit the most immediate issue. Longer term, Iran will face significant difficulty if it can’t secure the technologies to enhance production from its predominantly mature oilfields. Iran currently uses out-of-date technologies like pumping natural gas into the old oil fields to produce ever-dwindling amounts of oil. That is likely to become untenable with retail, commercial and industrial gas consumption on the rise. Countries like China and Russia are unlikely to meet standards of technologies developed in the United States and Europe.” As long as Washington can prevent it from obtaining vital enhanced oil recovery technologies, Iran’s economy will become increasingly fragile,” said energy scholar Micha’el Tanchum.(20)
[O & G]
The November sanctions constituted round two. Earlier sanctions imposed in August targeted Iran’s steel, aluminium and auto sectors by limiting access to raw materials and essential parts. They prompted together with the prospect of the November sanctions major European companies like Total, A.P. Moller-Maersk, Peugeot, Renault, Airbus, Alstom and Siemens to withdraw from Iran. "There is a primacy of the (US) political system. If that primacy is 'This is what you are going to do,' then that is exactly what we are going to do. We are a global company. We have interest and values and we have to balance both," said Joe Kaeser, the chief executive of German industrial conglomerate Siemens.(21) Put more forcefully, Pompeo’s special advisor on Iran, Brian Hook, quipped: “If you are the CEO of a European company and you are given the choice between doing business in the United States market or the Iranian market, that is the fastest decision you will ever make as CEO.”(22)
With Iran pushing Europe to put in place mechanisms to counter the US sanctions, European leaders are struggling to neutralize the measures while ensuring that European entities are shielded against being barred from the US market for doing business with Iran. European authorities have so far to convince the continent’s companies that they are able to do so.
Walking a Tightrope
If the withdrawal of European companies is one indication of the difficulty in countering sanctions, SWIFT, the financial messaging system, is another. SWIFT is caught between a rock and a hard place. The Trump administration has so far refrained giving it a waiver. As a result, SWIFT’s board of directors made up of representatives of major international banks risk being slapped with travel bans and asset freezes if the organization continues to do business with Iran.
To counter the US threat, the European Union invoked in July a blocking statute that makes US court decisions and administrative actions regarding sanctions on Iran void in Europe. It also prohibits Europe-based firms from discontinuing their business ties to Iran due to foreign sanctions.(23) The blocking statute was intended to not only shield European companies but also convince Iran that it was in its interests to remain committed to the nuclear accord.
“It’s a difficult exercise because the weight of the U.S. in the global economy and financial system is obviously relevant. But we are determined to preserve this deal,” said European Union foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini.(24) How difficult is evidenced by the fact that European measures have so far failed to produce convincing results. Without referring to the US sanctions, SWIFT said in early November that it was disconnecting an undisclosed number of unidentified Iranian banks.(25) Some 30 Iranian banks are connected to SWIFT. The impact that a disconnection from SWIFT would have was evident in 2012 when SWIFT complied with UN and EU sanctions. The disconnection wiped off almost half the value of the Iranian oil sector reducing revenues from oil exports from US$92.5 billion to USS52 billion.(26)
The odds in a US-EU battle over SWIFT are, however, not unequivocally in Washington’s favour. US sanctions would significantly impact the global financial system and threaten America’s dominant position. “We must increase Europe's autonomy and sovereignty in trade, economic and financial policies,” said German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas.(27) Europe appears to be putting its money where its mouth is by developing a system of its own that would handle financial transactions with Iran and be immune to US sanctions. Dubbed a special purpose vehicle, the system would be open to Russia and China, both of which are signatories to the nuclear agreement, as well as other countries. European officials were also looking at a barter system that would allow Iran to sell oil and use the proceeds to purchase goods or technology from Europe.(28)
The special purpose vehicles would be designed to reduce the number of financial transactions with Iran by bundling them and to shield commercial banks by limiting their role. The advantage of multiple vehicles would allow sanctions busters to differentiate between sanctionable and non-sanctionable transactions. They could also cater to different business segments including small and medium-sized enterprises that often have no exposure to the United States, the oil industry, as well as sectors like automotive and aviation. European officials privately concede that oil traders are unlikely to avail themselves of the special vehicle(s).
The vehicles could be stand-alone state-owned banks or clearing houses for companies that transfer money to Iran, repatriate funds from the country, or engage in barter trade with it.(29) The vehicles would avoid cross-border transactions that would be easier to monitor by US authorities by arranging that a European importer of Iranian goods gets paid by a European exporter. They would further coordinate payments in ways that exporters would be paid from funds outside of Iran while importers would be paid by funds within Iran.
Iran scholar and media company owner Esfandyar Batmanghelidj and policy analyst Axel Hellman argued that Europe could kickstart its vehicle initiative with one is that is focussed on the humanitarian sector that is not included in the sanctions regime. “Companies active in food and pharmaceuticals…have the longest-standing and arguably most important presence in Iran. Companies like Nestle, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, and Unilever—which sell the high-volume packaged foods, cleaning products, and medicines that households depend on—are at the heart of the most important commercial ecosystem in Iran, which includes Iran’s private sector and its vibrant consumer class… Despite the exemptions for trade in food, medicine, and many consumer products, Iran’s trade in these goods is restricted by the limited number of European banks willing to receive payments from Iranian importers. The SPV would serve to increase the volume of trade that can be conducted given the current state of banking ties,” Batmanghelidj and Hellman said.(30)
The European initiative is but one effort fuelled by the threat of sanctions against SWIFT to develop alternative systems including ones using blockchain, a technology that uses cryptography, that is already being considered by Russia and Iran.(31) Russia already uses a significantly cheaper alternative to SWIFT for domestic payments and is marketing it to foreign institutions.(32) China is developing a similar system.(33)
Conclusion The jury is out on the likely effectiveness of crippling sanctions imposed on Iran by the United States aimed at forcing the Islamic republic to alter its regional policy. Similarly, the fate of the 2015 international agreement that curbed Iran’s nuclear agreement hangs in the balance after the US withdrew from the deal and re-imposed sanctions. The success of US policy and the agreement’s continued viability depend on the ability of Iran’s oil buyers and world powers, including Europe, China, Russia, India, Japan and South Korea to cushion the impact of the sanctions. They also depend on the degree to which the United States is forced to allow exemptions to the sanctions in its effort to balance its harsh approach towards Iran with its other geo-political concerns. The record so far suggests that Iran will endure significant pain but like in the past will be able to maintain its policy. The question is whether an opening for renewed negotiations that would address the concerns of the United States and its allies and cater to Iranian aspirations and needs will occur only when US President Trump leaves office or whether Trump may ultimately decide that talks are in the interest of both parties.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Dr. James M. Dorsey
Senior Fellow at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, co-director of the University of Würzburg’s Institute for Fan Culture, and co-host of the New Books in Middle Eastern Studies podcast.James is the author of “The Turbulent World of Middle East Soccer”
(1) Jo Harper, Germany urges SWIFT end to US payments dominance, Deutsche Welle, 27 August 2018, https://www.dw.com/en/germany-urges-swift-end-to-us-payments-dominance/a-45242528
(2) Javier Blas, In Big Win for Trump, U.S. Sanctions Cripple Iranian Oil Exports, Bloomberg, 28 September 2018, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-09-18/in-big-win-for-trump-u-s-sanctions-cripple-iranian-oil-exports
(3) Ibid, Blas
(4) David Sheppard, US Treasury grants licence for Iranian-backed UK gasfield, Financial Times, 9 October 2018, https://www.ft.com/content/3471e0a6-cb90-11e8-b276-b9069bde0956
(5) Myra P.Saefong, Here’s what U.S. waivers on Iran oil sanctions mean for the global crude market, MarketWatch, 2 November 2018, https://www.marketwatch.com/story/heres-what-us-waivers-on-iran-oil-sanctions-would-mean-for-the-global-crude-market-2018-11-02
(6) Humeyra Pamuk and Timothy Gardner, U.S. renews Iran sanctions, grants oil waivers to China, seven others, Reuters, 5 November 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-southkorea-iran-oil/as-u-s-starts-oil-sanctions-against-iran-major-buyers-get-waivers-idUSKCN1NA0O8
(7) James M. Dorsey, Can the US make Iran sanctions stick? The Turbulent World of Middle East Soccer, 4 August 2018, https://mideastsoccer.blogspot.com/2018/08/can-us-make-iran-sanctions-stick.html
(8) Bijan Khajehpour, Iran reintroduces fuel cards to combat smuggling, Al-Monitor, 3 December 2018, https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2018/12/iran-fuel-cards-reintroduction-smuggling-sanctions-economy.html?utm_campaign=20181204&utm_source=sailthru&utm_medium=email&utm_term=Daily%20Newsletter
(9) Bijan Khajehpour, Smuggling surges as US sanctions hit Iranian rial, Al-Monitor, 31 October 2018, https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2018/10/iran-smuggling-foreign-exchange-rial-devaluation-sanctions.html
(10) Sajjad F. Dizaji, Do Sanctions Really Constrain Iran’s Military Spending? Bourse & Bazaar, 26 November 2018, https://www.bourseandbazaar.com/indicator-articles/2018/11/12/do-sanctions-really-constrain-irans-military-spending
(11) Mohammad Ali Shabani, Why US sanctions won’t ‘starve’ Iran of means to pursue its regional policy, Al-Monitor, 30 November 2018, https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2018/11/iran-regional-policy-sanctions-impact-pompeo-starve-syria.html?utm_campaign=20181203&utm_source=sailthru&utm_medium=email&utm_term=Daily%20Newsletter
(12) International Crisis Group, The Illogic of the U.S. Sanctions Snapback on Iran, 2 November 2018, https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/B064-the-illogic-of-the-us-sanctions-snapback-on-iran.pdf
(13) Nikkei Asian Review, Japan halts Iran oil imports under US pressure, 30 August 2018, https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/International-Relations/Japan-halts-Iran-oil-imports-under-US-pressure
(14) Irina Slav, Japan, South Korea To Resume Iranian Oil Shipments In January, OilPrice, 20 November 2018, https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Japan-South-Korea-To-Resume-Iranian-Oil-Shipments-In-January.html
(15) Osamu Tsukimori and Jane Chung, Japan, South Korea plan to resume Iran oil imports from January: sources, Reuters, 19 November 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-iran-sanctions-japan-southkorea/japan-south-korea-plan-to-resume-iran-oil-imports-from-january-sources-idUSKCN1NO0R4
(16) Ellen R. Wald, Here's How Iran Hides Its Secret Oil Trade, Forbes, 10 October 2018, https://www.forbes.com/sites/ellenrwald/2018/10/11/heres-how-iran-hides-its-secret-oil-trade/#79378eca363f
(17) Vinay Kaura, a special exemption that passed under the radar: India was allowed to continue its infrastructural works for the development of Chabahar, a strategic harbor in southern Iran opposite Oman, FirstPost, 8 November 2018, https://www.firstpost.com/india/us-grants-sanctions-waiver-to-india-on-chabahar-port-is-at-the-centre-of-washingtons-south-asia-strategy-5516891.html
(18) Shemuel Meir, Not so fast, Bibi: Why new sanctions won't bring down the Islamic Republic, +972, 25 November 2018, https://972mag.com/fast-bibi-new-sanctions-wont-bring-islamic-republic/138823/
(19) Chen Aizhu and Shu Zhang, Exclusive: As U.S. sanctions loom, China's Bank of Kunlun to stop receiving Iran payments – sources, Reuters, 23 October 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-iran-banking-kunlun-exclusive/exclusive-as-u-s-sanctions-loom-chinas-bank-of-kunlun-to-stop-receiving-iran-payments-sources-idUSKCN1MX1KA
(20) Micha’el Tanchum, Trump’s Iran Sanctions Could Work, Foreign Policy, 20 November 2018, https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/11/20/trumps-iran-sanctions-could-work/
(21) John Defterios, What impact will US sanctions on Iran actually have? CNN, 7 August 2018, https://edition.cnn.com/2018/08/06/middleeast/us-iran-sanctions-impact-intl/index.html
(22) US State Department, On The Record Briefing With Brian Hook Senior Policy Advisor to the Secretary of State and Special Representative for Iran, 3 December 2018, https://translations.state.gov/2018/12/03/on-the-record-briefing-with-brian-hook-senior-policy-advisor-to-the-secretary-of-state-and-special-representative-for-iran/
(23) Lili Bayer, EU shield looks flimsy against Trump’s Iran sanctions, Politico, 17 July 2018, https://www.politico.eu/article/iran-sanctions-donald-trump-eu-federica-mogherini-business-shield-looking-flimsy/
(24) Ibid. Bayer
(25) Reuters, SWIFT system to disconnect some Iranian banks this weekend, 9 November 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/usa-iran-sanctions-swift/swift-system-to-disconnect-some-iranian-banks-this-weekend-idUSFWN1XK0YW
(26) Leonid Bershidsky, How Europe Can Keep Money Flowing to Iran, Bloomberg, 18 May 2018, https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2018-05-18/how-europe-can-keep-money-flowing-to-iran
(27) Ibid. Harper
(28) Farnaz Fassihi and Laurence Norman, Europe’s Payment Channel to Salvage Iran Deal Faces Limits, The Wall Street Journal, 25 September 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/europe-plans-special-vehicle-to-maintain-companies-ties-to-iran-avoid-u-s-sanctions-1537855415
(29) Ellie Geranmayeh and Esfandyar Batmanghelidj, Bankless task: can Europe stay connected to Iran?, European Council for Foreign Relations, 11 October 2018, https://www.ecfr.eu/article/commentary_bankless_task_can_europe_stay_connected_to_iran
(30) Esfandyar Batmanghelidj and Axel Hellman, How Europe Could Blunt U.S. Iran Sanctions Without Washington Lifting A Finger, Foreign Policy, 4 December 2018, https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/12/03/how-europe-can-blunt-u-s-iran-sanctions-without-washington-raising-a-finger-humanitarian-spv/
(31) Adam Reese, Russia, Iran Discuss SWIFT-Free Interbank Settlements, ETHNews, 17 May 2018, https://www.ethnews.com/russia-iran-discuss-swift-free-interbank-settlements-enabled-by-blockchain
(32) Anastasia Alekseevskikh, Russian SWIFT equivalent goes abroad (?????????? ?????? SWIFT ???? ?? ?????), Izvestia, 15 February 2018, https://iz.ru/708312/anastasiia-alekseevskikh/rossiiskii-analog-swift-idet-za-rubezh
(33) Mizuho Bank, RMB Cross-border Interbank Payment System, 5 December 2017, https://www.mizuhobank.com/fin_info/cndb/rmb/pdf/cips.pdf
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